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Description of Texas, US
The United States state of Texas is located in the South Central region. As the second-largest U.S. state by both area and population (after Alaska), it has a population of more than 29.1 million people in 2020 (after California). In addition to the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, Texas has borders with Louisiana to the east, Arkansas and Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila to the south.
Texas' most populous city is Houston, which is also the fourth-largest in the United States, while San Antonio is the state's second-largest and the seventh-largest. Houston and Dallas–Fort Worth have been ranked as two of the country's top five most populous metropolitan statistical areas, respectively. Austin, the nation's second-most populous state capital, and El Paso round out the list of major cities. As a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico, Texas is referred to as "The Lone Star State." Lone Star appears on the Texas flag as well as on its seal. The Caddo word táysha, which means 'friends', is the origin of Texas's name.
As a result of its size and unique geology, Texas has a diverse range of landscapes that can be found in both the southern and southwestern parts of the United States. Texas is often associated with the southwestern deserts of the United States, but less than 10% of the state's land is desert. Areas that were once prairies, grasslands, forests, and coastline are home to most of the population. As one travels from east to west, one can see a variety of landscapes, from coastal swamps and pine forests to rolling plains and rugged hills to the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.
There have been six different countries that have ruled over Texas at various points in time. As a European country, Spain was the first to claim and control the territory of Texas. A short-lived colony was held by France. The territory was ruled by Mexico until 1836, when Texas became the Republic of Texas. Texas became the 28th state to join the Union in 1845. Because of this, the United States and Mexico were forced to go to war in 1846. Before the American Civil War, Texas was a slave state. In early 1861, it declared its secession from the United States and officially joined the Confederacy on March 2, 1861. As a result of a long period of economic stagnation, Texas was restored to federal representation following the end of the Civil War.
Cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil dominated the Texas economy prior to World War II. Prior to and following the American Civil War, Texas' cattle industry was a major economic driver for the state and helped to create the stereotype of the Texas cowboy. Cotton and lumber became important industries in the late 19th century as the cattle industry declined in profitability. As a final point, it was Spindletop's discovery of major petroleum deposits that led to an economic boom that dominated the country's economy for much of the twentieth century. During the mid-20th century, Texas' economy became more diverse and high-tech. It has the second-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the country as of 2015. The state is a leader in a wide range of industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences, thanks to its expanding industrial base. Since 2002, Texas has had the highest gross state product in the United States and the second-highest state export revenue. Texas would be the 10th-largest economy in the world if it were a sovereign state.
Geographical Description of Texas
Texas has an area of 268,820 square miles, making it the second-largest state in the United States after Alaska (696,200 km2). In terms of area, it is larger than France, Germany, Japan, and the UK combined, but it is only the 27th-largest country subdivision in the world. Texas would be the 39th-largest state in the United States if it were an independent nation.
The state of Texas is located in the southern part of the United States. Rivers define three of the country's borders. Mexican states of Tamaulipás, Nuevo León, Chaco and Coahuila are separated from the United States by the Rio Grande, a river that flows from the north of the country to the south. Northern Oklahoma and Arkansas are separated by the Red River. Louisiana shares its eastern border with Texas via the Sabine River. The Texas Panhandle has a 100° W eastern border with Oklahoma, a 36°30' N northern border with Oklahoma, and a 103° W western border with New Mexico. El Paso is located at 32° N and the Rio Grande in the southwest corner of the state.
This complicates regional classification because there are 10 climate regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, each with its own distinct characteristics. Between the southeast and west coasts, Texas can be broken down into four distinct regions: coastal plains; interior lowlands; the great plains; and the Basin and Range Province, according to one system of classification.
Southeast of the state is where the Gulf Coastal Plains region is located. Thick pine forests characterize the landscape here. There is a large pine-hardwood forest in the Interior Lowlands, which is made up of gently rolling to hilly forested land. The interior lowlands include the Cross Timbers region and the Caprock Escarpment.
Economy of Texas
Texas had the second-highest gross state product (GSP) in the United States in 2021-Q3. Brazil, Canada, Russia, South Korea, and Spain are the world's ninth-, tenth-, eleventh-, and twelfth-largest economies, respectively. While the median household income in Texas is $64,034, the poverty rate here is 14.2 percent, making Texas the 14th-highest in the country in terms of poverty (compared to 13.15 percent nationally). Second only to California, Texas has the world's second-largest economy.
This large and diverse economy is the result of many factors, including a large population and abundant natural resources, as well as vibrant cities and leading educational institutions. Because of the state's dependence on oil, its economy has fluctuated over time. As the state's urban centers have grown in size, they now comprise two-thirds of the state's population. As a result of the state's economic expansion, urban sprawl and its accompanying symptoms have emerged.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the state's unemployment rate was 13% in May 2020.
Because of Texas's three-billion dollar Texas Enterprise Fund, Site Selection Magazine ranked Texas the most business-friendly state in the United States in 2010. The number of Fortune 500 company headquarters in Texas and California is tied for the most in the United States. Texas had the second-largest population of millionaires in the United States in 2010, with 346,000 millionaires. There were 566,578 millionaires in the United States in 2018.