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Description of Ohio, US
The Midwestern U.S. region includes the state of Ohio. With a population of over 11.8 million, it is the seventh most populous state in the union and the tenth most densely populated in the country. As a whole, the Columbus metro area, Cincinnati's metropolitan area, and Cleveland's metropolitan area make up Ohio's three major metropolitan areas. To the north, Ohio borders Lake Erie; to the east, Pennsylvania; to the southeast, West Virginia; in Kentucky; and to the southwest, Indiana; and finally to the northwest, Michigan; Ohioans are sometimes known as "Buckeyes" because of the state's buckeye trees, which have historically been referred to as the "Buckeye State." It is the only state in the union with a flag that isn't square.
The Ohio River gets its name from the Seneca word ohiyo', which means "excellent river," "big river," or "huge creek" in Native American. Since colonial times until the late 18th century's Northwest Indian Wars, the territory west of the Appalachian Mountains has been a source of contention for the state of Ohio. On March 1, 1803, it became the 17th state to join the Union, and the first to do so under the Northwest Ordinance, which established the Northwest Territory as the first boundary of the nascent United States. The state of Ohio was the first post-colonial free state to join the union, and it became a major industrial powerhouse in the 20th century. In spite of its shift to an information and service-based economy in the twenty-first century, Ohio remains an industrial state, with the third-largest manufacturing sector and the second-largest vehicle output putting it seventh in GDP as of 2019.
A bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, and the state Supreme Court make up the three branches of Ohio's government, which are managed by the governor. The state of Ohio has 16 representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives. As a swing state and a national bellwether, the state is well-known for its role in national elections. Ohio has produced seven presidents of the United States. Consequently, the term "mother of presidents" has been bestowed to it.
Geographical Description of Ohio
As a result of Ohio's position, the state's economy has grown and expanded. As a gateway between the Northeast and the Midwest, Ohio's well-developed highways are frequently used by cargo and business traffic. Located within a one-day drive of 50 percent of North America's population and 70 percent of North America's manufacturing capacity, Ohio boasts the 10th-largest highway network in the United States. Ohio's Lake Erie coastline, which stretches for 312 miles (502 kilometers) to the north, is home to major freight ports, including Cleveland and Toledo. The Ohio River serves as the state's southern border. The states of Pennsylvania, Michigan, Lake Erie, Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia border Ohio on the east, the Midwest, and the west. Metes and bounds were used by the Enabling Act of 1802 to establish the following boundaries for Ohio:
East of the Pennsylvania line, south of the Ohio River to Great Miami River mouth, west of line drawn north from Great Miami River mouth aforesaid, and north of line drawn east and west through the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting line due north aforesaid, from Great Miami River mouth until Lake Erie or the territorial li is encountered.
Nearly all of the river's water is owned by Kentucky and West Virginia, yet the Ohio River is a boundary for both states. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled in 1980 that the northern low-water mark of the Ohio River as it existed in 1792 is the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia), based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which, at the time, included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia). Only the stretch of the Ohio River between the river's 1792 low-water mark and its current high-water mark is in Ohio.
It's also worth noting that due to the Toledo War, Ohio's boundary with Michigan is now angled slightly northeast toward the north shore of the Maumee River mouth.
The Great Black Swamp, a flat area in the northwest of the state, is made up of glaciated till plains. The unglaciated Allegheny Plateau and the glaciated Allegheny Plateau form the eastern and southern borders of this glaciated region in the northwest and central parts of the state. Allegheny Plateau has rough hills and forests, unlike most of Ohio's low relief.
An area ranging from the West Virginia Panhandle to Cincinnati's suburbs is an unique socio-economic entity in the southeast region of Ohio. Despite its geographical resemblance to sections of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this region is distinct from the rest of the state due to its coal mining history, reliance on a few remaining manufacturing centers, and a distinctive regional dialect. An attempt was made in 1965 by the United States Congress to "address the continuing poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region" through the Appalachian Regional Development Act. Appalachia is defined as 29 counties in Ohio by this legislation. Only 12.8 percent of Ohioans live in the federally recognized Appalachian area, which covers a third of the state's land mass (1.476 million people.)
The Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River are some of the state's most important rivers. North Carolina's rivers empty into Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence Seaway, while the Ohio River and its tributaries empty into the Gulf of Mexico via Lake Erie, Lake Champlain, and the Mississippi River.
The Great Miami River flood of 1913 was Ohio's biggest meteorological calamity ever. The entire Miami River watershed, including Dayton's central business sector, was flooded during the Great Dayton Flood. This led to what is considered the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys, located in the state's west central region, was built between 1820 and 1850 to provide as a water supply for canals. Completed in 1845, this artificial lake covered about 20 square miles (52 square kilometers) of land, making it the largest of its kind at the time. Unlike similar ventures in other states, Ohio's canal-building endeavors were not a financial disaster. Even as recently as 1910, much of the state's bulk freight was transported by canals in places like Dayton, which were located on the banks of canals.
Economy of Ohio
In 2016, there were 4,790,178 people employed in the United States, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. In all, there were 252,201 unique employer establishments, whereas there were 785,833 non-employer establishments. Site Selection magazine recognized Ohio as the second best business climate in the country in 2010 based on a database of business activities. In addition, the magazine's Governor's Cup has recognized the state three times in a row for its contributions to economic development. It was $626 billion in Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016. According to this, Ohio's economy is the seventh largest in the United States.
As reported by the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council's 2009 Business Tax Index, the state's top corporate tax rate of 1.9 percent and capital gains tax rate of No. 6 were both among the state's most business-friendly tax systems. Small Business Survival Index 2009 classified the state of Ohio as No. 11 on the list of states with the best policies for small businesses. According to the Directorship's Boardroom Guide, the state ranks No. 13 overall for business climate, including No. 7 for the best litigation climate. In 2009, Forbes rated the state's regulatory climate as the 8th best in the nation. United States News and World Report has named five of the nation's top 115 colleges in 2010 and ranked eight of the nation's best high schools in 2008.
As of February 2018, the unemployment rate in Ohio is 4.5%, down from 10.7% in May 2010. When compared to pre-recession statistics in 2007, the state has lost 45,000 jobs. As of April 2015, 63 percent of the population was actively seeking employment, which is slightly more than the national average. The state of Ohio has a per capita income of $34,874. A whole 13.1% of Ohioans live below the poverty level as of 2019, with a typical household income of $58,642.
As a percentage of Ohio's GDP, manufacturing and financial activities make for 18.3% of the state's total output. After California and Texas, Ohio is home to the third-largest manufacturing labor force in the country. The bioscience sector in Ohio is the largest in the Midwest, and the state is a national leader in the "green" economy as a result. Electricity equipment and appliances are among the many products manufactured in Ohio. In Ohio, there are now 5,212,000 people employed on a pay or salary basis.
Trade, transportation, and utilities employ 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of the state's workforce. Health care and education, on the other hand, employ 825,000 (15.8 percent). There are 787,000 people employed by the government, 669,000 people employed by the manufacturing sector, and 638,000 people employed by the professional and technical services sector in the state of Ohio (12.2 percent). In terms of gross domestic product, Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest in the country. There are 59 of the top 1,000 U.S. publicly traded firms in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, Ak Steel, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's (according to 2008 revenue figures).
The Ohio Lottery is one of 41 state-run lotteries in the United States. Since its inception in 1974, the Ohio Lottery has donated almost $26 billion to the state's public schools.