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Description of New Mexico, US
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern United States. Located in the southern Rocky Mountains, it is part of the Four Corners region of the western United States and shares its boundaries with the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora. The government seat of Nuevo México in New Spain, Santa Fe, was established in 1610 as the oldest capital city in the United States; Albuquerque is the largest metropolis.
With little more than 2.1 million residents, New Mexico is the country's fifth-largest state by land area, yet it comes in 36th in terms of population and 46th in terms of population density. The Rio Grande and its fertile valley run north to south through the state's center, creating a riparian climate that supports a bosque habitat and a distinct Albuquerque Basin climate. The northern and eastern regions have a colder alpine climate, while the western and southern regions are warmer and more arid. An estimated one-third of New Mexico is owned by the federal government. The state also boasts the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites (3 out of 3) and several protected wilderness areas and national monuments (14 total).
The New Mexico Oil & Gas Association, the EMNRD, the New Mexico Technology Corridor, the media in Albuquerque, and the state's film industry are just a few examples of the state's thriving economy and industries. It also has a wide range of industries including cattle ranching and agriculture; lumber; scientific and technological research; tourism; as well as the arts, particularly textiles and visual arts. Moreover, there was $95.73 billion in total gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020, with a GDP per capita of $46,300. Military personnel and beneficial industries are given specific privileges in state tax policy together with low to moderate taxes on resident personal income. White Sands Missile Range and strategically important government research institutes, such as Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, are located in New Mexico because of its size and weather. Trinity and other significant Manhattan Project sites were located in the state, where the world's first atomic bomb was developed.
New Mexico was home to the Ancestral Puebloans, Mogollon, and contemporary Comanche and Utes in prehistoric times. Navajos and Apaches arrived in the state at the end of the 15th century. There are no Mexican roots to the state's name. As a result, New Mexico was placed on the outside of the viceroyalty of New Spain because of its challenging terrain and the relative dominance of indigenous people. Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821 made it an independent region of Mexico, but it was increasingly threatened by Mexico's centralizing policies and became more economically dependent on the United States as a result. The United States absorbed New Mexico into the New Mexico Territory at the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. When it was admitted to the Union on January 6, 1912, it played a pivotal part in the westward expansion of the United States.
New Mexico's unique demographic and cultural qualities have been shaped by the state's rich history. Heaviest concentration of Hispanic and Latino residents; second-highest concentration of Native Americans, after Alaska. Three federally recognized Apache tribes, 19 federally recognized Pueblo villages, and a component of the Navajo Nation all have a presence in New Mexico. More than half of its population is made up of Hispanics, descendants of early Spanish colonists, Chicano and Mexican immigrants. Among the most iconic American flags, the New Mexican flag bears the scarlet and gold colors of the Spanish flag along with the ancient sun sign of the Zia Pueblo people. New Mexico's cuisine, music, and architecture all reflect the fusion of indigenous, Spanish, Mexican, Hispanic, and American influences.
Geographical Description of New Mexico
With a total area of 121,590 square miles, New Mexico is the fifth-largest state, following Alaska, Texas, California and Montana. With Oklahoma and Texas, its eastern boundary lies along 103°W longitude, and 2.2 miles (3.5 kilometers) to the west of that longitude with Oklahoma (due to a 19th-century surveying error). The Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora occupy the western part of the southern border, with Chihuahua representing nearly 90% of it. At a longitude of 109° 03' West, the state of Arizona reaches its westernmost point. Bootheel is the name given to the region in the state's far southwest. Colorado's northern boundary is defined by the 37°N parallel. The Four Corners, located in New Mexico's northwest corner, is where the four states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah meet. There is approximately 292 square miles of water on the surface of the ocean (760 km2).
Known for its diverse landscapes, New Mexico is home to some of the widest deserts in the United States, as well as some of the greenest meadows, jagged mesas, and snow-capped mountains. Nearly one-third of the state's land area is covered by densely wooded mountain wildernesses in the north. On the rocky east bank of the Rio Grande, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of Colorado's Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south. West of the Llano Estacado is the escarpment of the Mescalero Ridge ("Staked Plain"). Into the state's eastern third, the Great Plains are still visible. With its unique volcanic landscape, open pinyon-juniper woodland and mountain forests, the Colorado Plateau is the dominant feature of New Mexico's northwest region. Southern Mexico is home to the Chihuahuan Desert, the largest in North America.
In New Mexico, more than four-fifths of the state lies over 1,250 meters above sea level. As high as 2,500 meters above sea level can be found in the northwest, while fewer than 1,000 feet (300 meters) can be found in the southeast. Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains is the state's highest point at 13,160 feet (4,011 meters), while the lowest point is the Red Bluff Reservoir in the southeast region at 2,840 feet (866 meters).
In addition to the Rio Grande, which is the fourth-longest river in the United States, New Mexico has four major river systems: the Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, and Gila. Since prehistoric times, the fertile floodplain of the Rio Grande, which almost bisects New Mexico north to south, has supported human habitation; European immigrants originally settled in its valleys and along its tributaries. Both the Pecos and the Canadian rivers, which run parallel to the Rio Grande to the east and cross the desert plains to the north, were tempting routes for explorers. The San Juan and Gila are located west of the Continental Divide, to the northwest and southwest, respectively. All of New Mexico's major rivers, with the exception of the Gila, have been dammed and are key sources of water for irrigation and flood control.
There are only a few large natural lakes and reservoirs in New Mexico, with the Rio Grande damming creating Elephant Butte Reservoir, the state's largest artificial lake. The reservoir was formerly the largest man-made lake in the world when it was built in the early twentieth century.
Economy of New Mexico
The state's economy relies heavily on oil and gas production, tourism, and federal funding. State tax credits and technical assistance are used to encourage job creation and corporate investment, especially in emerging technologies.
New Mexico's GDP is expected to reach $95 billion in 2021, up from roughly $80 billion in 2010. After the COVID-19 pandemic, the state's gross domestic GDP peaked at around $99 billion in 2019. After West Virginia and Mississippi, the per capita personal income in 2021 was slightly greater than $45,800, compared to $31,474 in 2007. It ranked third lowest in the nation. This century has seen a steady decrease in the percentage of people who are living below the poverty line from 18.4 percent in 2005 to 18.2 percent in 2021.