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Description of New Jersey, US
New Jersey is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bounded by New York to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, southeast, and south, the Delaware River and Pennsylvania to the west, and Delaware Bay and Delaware to the southwest. New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state based on geographical area, with 7,354 square miles (19,050 km2), yet with about 9.3 million citizens, it is the eleventh-most populous and most densely inhabited state. Trenton is the state capital of New Jersey, whereas Newark is the state's most populous city. With the exception of Warren County, every county in the state is located within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia; as a result, the state's most populous metropolitan region is Greater New York.
Native Americans have lived in New Jersey for at least 2,800 years, with the Lenape being the dominant group when Europeans first came in the early 17th century. Dutch and Swedish colonists established the state's earliest European settlements. Later, the English acquired control of the territory and founded New Jersey, named after the largest of the Channel Islands, Jersey. The colony's fertile lands and relative religious tolerance attracted a populace that was huge and diversified. New Jersey was one of the Thirteen Colonies that battled Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War, hosting a number of significant battles and military commanders. The state stayed in the Union during the American Civil War, and afterwards became a major manufacturing and immigration hub; it contributed to the nation's Industrial Revolution, and was the scene of significant technological and commercial advancements in the middle of the 20th century.
In the second half of the 20th century, New Jersey's key placement in the Northeast megalopolis spurred its fast growth and suburbanization. At the turn of the 21st century, its economy became increasingly diversified, with biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, specialist agriculture, and information technology constituting important industries. With one of the most cosmopolitan populations in the United States, New Jersey remains a leading destination for immigrants. Since 2008, the state has progressively re-urbanized, with growth in the cities surpassing that in the suburbs. With the second highest median household income in 2017, New Jersey is one of the wealthiest states in America. Over 323,000 out of 3,3 million families are millionaires, which is the highest rate per capita in the country. The public education system in New Jersey consistently ranks at or near the top of all U.S. states.
Geographical description of New Jersey
New Jersey is bordered on the north and northeast by New York, with portions of that state across the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, and the Arthur Kill; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the southwest by Delaware across Delaware Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvania across the Delaware River. This is the sole straight border in New Jersey.
North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey are the three primary geographic divisions of the state of New Jersey. Some New Jersey citizens do not regard Central Jersey to be a distinct region, while others view it to be a geographically and culturally distinct territory from the state's northern and southern regions.
There are five separate areas within these zones, based on natural terrain and human density. Northeastern New Jersey is the New York City borough closest to Manhattan, and up to a million citizens commute everyday into the city for work, with many taking public transportation. Northwest New Jersey is more forested, mountainous, and rural. The oak is the dominant tree in the northern woodlands. Due to its location along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, the Jersey Shore has distinctive natural, residential, and cultural qualities. The Delaware Valley consists of the state's southern counties, which are located within the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. The Pine Barrens region is located in the southern interior of New Jersey; this region has a lower population density than most of the rest of the state due to its vast pine and oak forest cover. Forests encompass approximately 2.1 million acres, or 45 percent, of New Jersey's total area.
The federal Office of Management and Budget splits the counties of New Jersey into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, with 16 counties included in either the New York City or Philadelphia metropolitan areas. Warren County is a part of the Lehigh Valley metropolitan area in Pennsylvania, one of four counties with its own metropolitan areas. New Jersey is also in the hub of the megalopolis in the Northeast.
High Point, located in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the highest point in the state at 1,803 feet (550 meters) above sea level. The highest point in the state is Kitty Ann Mountain in Morris County, which rises 892 feet (272 m). The Palisades are a series of precipitous cliffs on the west bank of the Hudson River in Bergen and Hudson Counties. The Hudson, Delaware, Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, Musconetcong, Mullica, Rancocas, Manasquan, Maurice, and Toms rivers are significant in New Jersey. Due to the peninsular nature of New Jersey, sunrise and sunset can be seen across the water from several Jersey Shore locations.
Economy of New Jersey
The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Jersey's gross state product was $639.8 billion in the fourth quarter of 2018. The anticipated 2015 taxpayer burden in New Jersey was $59,400 per person. New Jersey owes approximately $239 billion.
In 2008, New Jersey's per capita gross state product was $54,699, ranking second in the United States and above the national per capita gross domestic product, which was $45,588. Its per capita income ranked third in the country at $51,358. In 2020, New Jersey had the greatest percentage of millionaires per household in the United States, at 9.76 percent. Seventy-six percent of the state's municipalities have per capita earnings above the national average, ranking it second in the nation. Nine counties in New Jersey are among the 100 wealthiest in the United States.