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Description of Georgia, US
"Georgia," or Sakartvelo in Georgian, is an eastern Transcaucasian country located on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains. Azerbaijan to the east and southeast, Armenia and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the west are the country's neighbors. There are three distinct ethnic groups in Georgia: Abkhazia in the northwest (capital Sokhumi), Ajaria in the southwest (capital Batumi), and South Ossetia in the north (capital Mestia) (principal city Tskhinvali). Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia (Tiflis).
The history and culture of the Georgian people are steeped in antiquity. During the Middle Ages, a powerful Georgian monarchy flourished, peaking between the 10th and 13th centuries. During the 19th century, the Russian Empire took control of Georgia, which had been under Turkish and Persian rule for many years. As part of the Soviet Union, Georgia was an independent state from 1918 to 1921. After the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, Georgia became a constituent republic and remained such till then. During the Soviet era, the economy of Georgia expanded and became more diverse. On November 19, 1989, Georgia became a state, and on April 9, 1991, it became an independent nation.
First post-independence administration was overthrown and separatist movements arose in South Ossetia and Abkhazia during the 1990s.
Geographical Description of Georgia
Except for the rich plain of the Kolkhida Lowland—ancient Colchis, where the famous Argonauts hunted for a golden fleece—geography Georgia's is largely mountainous, and more than a third is covered by forest or brushwood.. From the warm Black Sea coastlines to the snowy peaks of the Caucasus, the landscape is highly varied. There are more noticeable variances in culture because of its relatively tiny population.
It is possible to split Georgia's harsh topography into three bands that go from north to south and west to east.
To the north is the Great Caucasus mountain range, which consists of numerous parallel and transverse mountain ranges that rise eastward and are frequently divided by deep, wild valleys. In addition to Mount Shkhara, Georgia's tallest peak at 16,627 feet (5,068 meters), the crest-line peaks of Mounts Rustaveli, Tetnuld, and Ushba are all over 15,000 feet. The extinct Mkinvari (Kazakh) volcano's 16,512-foot-tall cone towers over the northernmost Bokovoy range. In addition to the main Caucasian trend, the Lomis and Kartli (Kartalinian) ranges extend southward from the central range. From the ice-covered peaks of these lonely mountains, numerous streams and rivers flow.
Due to a huge structural depression, the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus meet up with a second band of central lowlands. Massive river deposits have been deposited over thousands of years in the Kolkhida Lowland, which is near the Black Sea. There are three major rivers in western Georgia: the Inguri, Rioni, and Kodori, which flow from the Greater Caucasus. It used to be that the Kolkhida Lowland was almost always a marsh in the past. Since afforestation plans and river drainage canals and embankments have been implemented as part of a massive development program, the region has emerged as a major producer of subtropical and commercial crops.
the Black and Caspian basins are separated by Meskhet and Likh mountains that bridge structural valley to east, which represent watershed between Meskhet and Likh mountains, which link the greater and lesser caucasus The Kartli (Kartlinian) Plain is a high plateau located in central Georgia between the cities of Khashuri and Mtskheta. All along the Kura River, as well as some smaller rivers, this plateau is found. To the north, south, east, and west are mountains, and the majority of the area is covered in loess deposits.
Lesser Caucasus mountains rise to 10,830 feet above sea level in Didi-Abuli, defining Georgia's southern boundary beyond a narrow stretch of swampy coast.
Many soil types can be found in Georgia, ranging from gray-brown semi-arid lands to red earth and podzols. A greater range of options is made possible thanks to technological advances.
Economy of Georgia
A diverse and highly mechanized agriculture sector coexists with a thriving industrial sector in Georgia's economy. This country's gross domestic product (GDP) is about half agricultural, and one-fourth of the workforce is employed in agriculture.
After independence, the economy of Georgia shrank dramatically as a result of political unrest (which discouraged foreign investment), the loss of favorable trading relationships with former Soviet Union states and civil unrest in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, where key pipelines and transport links were sabotaged or blocked. Restructuring Georgia's command economy into one based on market principles included liberalizing prices, overhauling the banking system, and privatizing several state-owned companies and retail outlets.
The National Bank of Georgia, the nation's central bank, issues the Georgian lari as the country's official currency. Major financial institutions, including as the stock market and most banks, are based in Tbilisi.
Plant and Animal Life
Geographical and topographical diversity have resulted in a wide range of landscapes in Georgia. The wet, subtropical Black Sea coastlines are only a short distance from the perpetual snows of the mountain peaks. Forested valleys and alpine meadows alternate with fast-flowing canyons and desolate steppes.
As much as a third of the country is covered by trees and vegetation. Pitsunda pines, a long-extinct species found only in the western United States, are safe from extinction thanks to a climate that has remained relatively constant for thousands of years (Pinus pithyusa). Other trees in the woodlands include Caucasian fir, ash, linden, apple and pear trees, as well as oak and chestnut. There are a wide variety of evergreens and deciduous shrubs (such as rhododendron holly) in the western undergrowth. Liana is found in several forests in the western United States. Country roads in the United States are dotted with citrus groves and rows of eucalyptus trees.
With fewer trees, the steppes of eastern Georgia are covered in prickly vegetation as well as a thick carpet of feather and beard grass. Herbaceous plants predominate in the high-altitude subalpine and alpine vegetation. Astonishing diversity abounds among animals. Goats and Caucasian antelope inhabit the mountains, as well as rodents in the high meadows; the plentiful wildlife includes mountain turkey, Caucasian black grouse, and bearded eagles. River trout and highland lake trout can be found in abundance here.
Boars, white-tailed deer, roe and Caucasian bucks, brown bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, jackals, and squirrels all live in woodlands. The thrush to the hawk and the black vulture are only some of the birds that populate the world. They share the lowland areas with some of these native animals and birds since they are home to invasive species such as raccoons, mink, and nutria. Fisheries abound in the Black Sea and its tributaries, rivers, and lakes.